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Are you ready for an academic career?

We know from reviewing national data that most entering postdocs believe they want a career in academia. And yet, a few years later, this career path becomes much less desirable. What happens? After seeing up close what your faculty go through — grant seeking, publication struggles, promotion demands, and other daily elements of the academic enterprise — the academic path may no longer be so attractive (we understand!). We also know you hear plenty of stories about how competitive it is “out there.” These concerns are real. And, we know that all of you can be a successful academic, if that is the path you truly want to pursue. We have several programs that can help support you in making an informed decision, or in gaining the skills you need to be the strongest candidate for an academic career.

Assess Your Readiness: What do you need to be ready to go “on the market”? It depends. The team at University of California developed a simple tool to help you self-assess whether you have the elements that hiring committees are looking for, whether it is at an R1 institution, a primarily teaching-focused institution, or a position with a mix of research and teaching. The Academic Career Readiness Assessment is a free PDF that provides milestones to work toward.

Seek Diverse Role Models: Who is successful with diverse funding portfolios? Who is managing the kind of work-life balance you would need? Who is a great mentor and effective research group leader? Who believes in you? You need more examples of how to be a faculty member than just who you might be exposed to in your immediate research group. Talk to junior faculty in your field and ask how they have navigated their transition to independence.

Learn What You Need: One great place to learn more about what you might need to be competitive on the academic job market is the Future Faculty Fellows program, which is sponsored by the UW School of Medicine and is open to all UW postdocs. The 2018 two-day program will happen June 11–12. Need more teaching experience? Apply to be a fellow in the Science Teaching Experience for Postdocs (STEP) program next year (applications due September) or ask around where you might be a guest lecturer. You can also ask to shadow a faculty member you admire.

Ready to Go? Seek Internal Reviewers: Tailoring the cover letter is so important for each position, as is getting feedback on all elements of the faculty package. Unsure what to include? In addition to the resources provided by the Future Faculty Fellows program, check out the numerous guides for each element at the UW Career & Internship Center. Ask for a friendly but critical review from your mentoring team, as well as a handful of near-peers. The more eyes you get on your application, the more you can fine-tune it and make sure you stand out from the crowd.

As always, feel free to check in with us in the Office of Postdoc Affairs, or make an appointment with our faculty advisor. We are here to help you strategize and would welcome the opportunity to advise you on your next career steps.

Quick Tips for Fitting in Career Planning

Welcome back to all graduate students at Bothell, Seattle, and Tacoma campuses! We at Core Programs hope you created intentional space for yourself to relax and enjoy the holiday break. The start of a new calendar year is often a time to look ahead and set intentions that help you do well personally, academically and in your work life (current and future).

It can feel like a lot, but we know from experience that doing a little at a time can make a big project more manageable. Below are a few strategies you can incorporate into your weekly routine, so that intentional career planning becomes part of your graduate student experience.

Engage in self-exploration.  Across the UW, grad programs provide students with varying degrees (and breadth) of career guidance. Regardless of your discipline, career planning is an important life-long skill to learn and hone throughout your graduate school journey and beyond. To start get you started, consider doing assessments of your skills, interests, values, and strengths. These assessments can help you identify sectors, jobs and work environments that are a good match for you.

Break down each task. We see—and hear you—that you are busy fulfilling requirements for your degree, working a part-time or full-time job, and/or taking care of loved ones. Yet it’s also still true that only you can invest time in your career development before you graduate. Consider carving out 15 minutes in your schedule once a week to (1) make a list of careers you’re interested and the skills they require, (2) search and make note of professionals on LinkedIn who work in those careers, then soon after, (3) explore company or organization websites to get a feel for what they offer, and (4) set up a 30-min. informational interview with one of the individuals on your list, and so many more leads once you get started.

Utilize a range of resources that fits your availability.  Schedule an appointment with a career counselor at your UW campus for in-person guidance on developing concrete strategies for your career exploration. Come talk to any of us at Core Programs (Skype appointments available too). If it’s difficult for you to schedule an in-person appointment, get acquainted with free online career planning tools such as ImaginePhD or myIDP—each with their own assessments as well. Attend a graduate student career development event offered by a career center at Bothell or Seattle—and be on the lookout for upcoming events sponsored or co-organized by Core Programs!

Getting stuck—or did you discover an awesome career exploration tool? Let us know! And happy launch into 2018!


Core Programs Team

Working with mentors to support your career goals!

We all have different mentors in our life. These people have our best interest in mind and are able to guide and support our professional and personal development. In your personal life, look for advisors who are compassionate, enthusiastic, generous, honest, insightful, selfless and wise. In your professional life, it is imperative to find mentors who are collaborative, intellectual, knowledgeable, accessible, and visionary. In both, it is important to have mentors who will challenge and support you in doing your best work and being your best self. For additional desirable mentor traits, see Cho et al. (2011) in which mentor nomination letters were analyzed for traits among those who supported the careers of junior faculty. And remember, look for multiple mentors — a single person cannot provide all of the support and encouragement you need! See Graduate School Mentor Memos on Building Your Mentoring Team and What a Good Mentor Does.

Once you identify your champions, build a thoughtful relationship to ensure that it is productive and continues to prioritize your long-term goals. In Mapping a Mentoring Roadmap and Developing a Supportive Network for Strategic Career Advancement, Montgomery (2017) outlines the steps necessary to support a productive mentor-mentee relationship. In addition, in Making the most of mentors: A guide for mentees, Zerzan et al. (2009) provide a very clear checklist to consider as you identify mentors and build your relationships. Briefly:

  1. Self Reflection: Before setting up a meeting with your mentor, figure out what you need in a mentor. What unique skills and experiences do they have that will benefit your career or personal goals? Do you need a team of mentors (hint: the answer is yes!)?
  2. Getting Started: Set an agenda with your interests in mind. How often should you formally meet? Be sure to set goals and follow-up with an emailed list of action items so that expectations are clear to both you an your mentor. For additional tips, see Managing Up.
  3. Maintenance: Be sure to sustain regular contact with your mentor. If you’ve agreed to future milestones, be sure to meet them or discuss more realistic goals if necessary.
  4. Moving Ahead: Your life will evolve. At some point, you will be less reliant on your current mentors and will need to identify more relevant advisors. Be open with you mentor, re-evaluate your relationship, and gracefully transition to your next phase. However, be sure to maintain a positive relationship, as your mentor already invested a great deal of effort in you. They will want to see you continue to be successful and you may find yourself relying on them in the future.

Above all else, keep all lines of communication open. You may have a great plan for your personal and professional development. However, if you and your mentor don’t communicate, then you won’t be working towards the same finish line.



  • Cho, C. S. (2011). Defining the ideal qualities of mentorship: A qualitative analysis of the characteristics of outstanding mentors. The American Journal of Medicine, 124 (5), 453–458.
  • Montgomery, B. L. (2017). Mapping a mentoring roadmap and developing a supportive network for strategic career advancement. SAGE Open. 1–13.
  • Zerzan, J. T. (2009). Making the most of mentors: a guide for mentees. Academic Medicine, 84 (1), 140–144.

Exploration and Action: Keys to identifying your next steps

We often talk with postdocs about steps you can take to plan for your future. Before jumping into goal setting, investing time in assessment, reflection, and exploration can help assure your goals are aiming you in the right direction. We have promoted a few self-assessment tools in the past (myIDP and Doug’s Guides). A new tool from the Graduate Career Consortium (ImaginePhD) has enhanced capabilities and expanded “job families” that help you match your skills, values, and interests with a wider set of options.

Take time to invest in your future: Roughly five to 25 percent of your time (one to 10 hours) should be focused on your future. Whether you spend that time in self-assessment, sector exploration, informational interviews, grant writing, writing YOUR publications, or on your independent research, it is critical to your future success that you take a few hours each week to build and plan your career. This goes for brand new postdocs as well as those of you in your fifth year — it is never too late or too early to start.

Assess where you are: Set short term (three-month) and long term (three-year) goals. The new ImaginePhD website has a very helpful planning tool called “My Plan”. They have listed numerous potential goals for career, skills, funding, and personal development directions. You can drag and drop to give yourself actions to take each week,  month or year. It can be modified and updated. The best goals are SMART: specific, measurable, action-oriented, realistic, and time-sensitive. This means you have to revisit them regularly — ideally with a conversation partner, who can be a peer, your faculty advisor or a member of your mentoring team.

Make a plan: The tools mentioned above can help you take stock of where you are now, and this includes not only your skill sets and experiences, but also the nature of the work you enjoy and work environments where you find yourself thriving. Choose one or all of the tools to help you think about where you are — it can change from day to day — and then use this feedback to help you make an informed plan. You should consider additional skills or experiences you should gain during your postdoc and which sectors or kinds of roles you should be exploring for your next career phase.

While designed for people from humanities and social science backgrounds, the improved interface, expanded options, and tailored planning that is available through ImaginePhD makes it worthwhile for postdocs from all disciplines. Give it a try and then give us feedback. Let us know if it is working for you.

Career Advice for Beyond the End of The Road

If the path before you is clear, you’re probably on someone else’s.
– Joseph Campbell


Dr. Keith Micoli visited UW from NYU where he directs the postdoc office and has worked for a decade to support postdoc professional development. Dr. Micoli shared advice with UW postdocs at a workshop on October 16, and we share highlights with you here.  For anyone who has done any kind of endurance activity, you will recognize a theme within these tips, drawn from Dr. Micoli’s own science training career and long-distance hiking activities:

Lesson 1 – Commit to Your Goal

  • Knowing your goals will help you get through the inevitable tough moments, when you want to give up. You can’t hike 130 miles all at one shot. 
  • When something’s obviously not working, try something else.
  • If you don’t know your goal, it’s a lot harder to accomplish anything.

Lesson 2 – Know the Difference Between Need and Want

  • Rather than imagine what your faculty advisor is thinking about your path, talk about it; you may be surprised!
  • Set a date that you are NOT going to be a postdoc anymore; start working on your end goals NOW.
  • When identifying where you want to go next, think not just about the position or job title, but also your values and how they fit the organization’s culturemyIDP and Doug’s Guides can give you some insights to explore further.

Lesson 3 – Know What Success Will Require of You

  • What does it take to be a successful tenure-track faculty member? What does success look like in an alternative career?
  • Are you willing to pay the price to pursue a certain career? If you are not, you shouldn’t be doing it.
  • Use your postdoc time to develop your many transferable skills, such as writing, teaching, counseling, organization, situation analysis, independence, meeting deadlines, negotiations, enlisting help, communication skills, course development, setting goals, supervising, coordinate, editing, research design, listening, networking, time management, selling ideas, resourcefulness, attention to details, collaborating, giving feedback, data analysis, presentations, take risks, budgeting, decision-making, artistic/creative, conflict management delegating, facilitating discussion, interpersonal skills, prioritizing, giving feedback…and more.

Lesson 4 – Do Your Best with What You Have

  • Focus on things and places where you can have an impact, not on the things you can’t do.
  • Visualize the completion of a goal, and then go backwards to plan for a timeline and achievable sub-goals.
  • Sometimes you need to put in more resources to finish on time; sometimes you need to extend the deadline and to be realistic.

Lesson 5 – Be Realistic and Opportunistic

  • Why is your goal important, and why hasn’t it already been achieved?
  • What is the most direct way to achieve it?
  • What resources do you have, and what resources do you need?

Lesson 6 – Never Give Up

  • You don’t have the benefit of knowing where the finishing line is. Just keep going and never give up.

Setting Yourself Up For Career Success

As we head into a new season, it is a good time to take a moment to assess where things stand regarding your career goals. What are your achievements of the past couple of months; of the past year? What skills do you want to hone in the coming months? What kinds of careers are exciting for you right now?

Last week, the Office of Postdoc Affairs welcomed a new cohort of postdoc fellows to the UW community. During the orientation session, we heard from champions of the UW postdoc experience on ways we, as a large university, can help you. These included Dr. John Slattery from UW School of Medicine; Emma Williams from Office of the Ombud; Catherine Basl from UW Career & Internship Center; Dr. Stacey Long-Genevese from the Institute of Translational Health Sciences (ITHS), and Dr. Karla-Luise Herpoldt, Co-Chair of the UW Postdoc Association (UWPA).

We also kick-started a workshop, Making the Most of your Postdoc Experience, highlighting tools and strategies to jump feet-first into your postdoc experience and set you up for success in your next career moves. While your research experiences will be driven by your research project and mentor, we encourage you to spend some time exploring non-bench skills and diverse career options (academic vs. non-academic; public sector; industry; non-profits; entrepreneurship; science communication; etc.). Here are a few tips:

1. Take the time to create an Individual Development Plan, identifying short-term and mid-term goals for your research, your career, and your personal life. Discuss your plans and goals with your primary research mentor and a larger group of mentors who will support your growth.
2. Plan the steps necessary to achieve independence. What skills and strengths do you have and where do you still need to grow? What contribution do you want to make — whether it is your research direction or your career pathway or both?
3. Build your network so you can explore diverse career options. Try out some informational interviews based on even distant connections to learn more about what work-life is like in a variety of sectors. Ask these informants how they got started, and what skills or experiences they recommend cultivating during your postdoc years.

The UW Office of Postdoctoral Affairs has many resources to support all aspects of your postdoc experience. Join us to build on these insights and others at the next professional development event on October 16th (3:30–5 p.m., Health Sciences Building T531). Dr. Keith Micoli, Assistant Dean for Postdoctoral Affairs at New York University School of Medicine will be presenting a workshop entitled Beyond the End of the Road: Career Advice From the Wilderness. There, he will share lessons learned and best practices gleaned from his experiences leading the NYU Scientific Training Enhancement Program (NYU-STEP), including the importance of individual career development plan implementation and the identification and cultivation of skills necessary for informed career choices. It’s never too early, or too late, to start thinking about your next career step! We look forward to talking with you at this upcoming event.

Graduating soon, and what next?

“I am a fifth-year doctoral student and will be graduating soon. I’m at the point in my graduate education where I am thinking about possible careers. What are some simple steps I can take to start my career planning?” –Anonymous

Lucky you, grad student, you get two answers to your question! One is from Catherine Basl, career counselor with Career & Internship Services. Catherine manages the center’s programming for graduate students. Another is from the Core Programs team, who support personal and professional development of grad students at the UW. You know what they say, two heads are better than one!

Catherine Basl, career counselor, Career & Internship Services:

Leverage your research skills for career planning! Aim for a mix of independent reading about options and connecting with professionals in coffee chats or at events.

A few ideas for getting started:

  • Talk to one alum of your graduate program who works outside of academia in an area of possible interest. Graduate Program Advisers could be a good resource for finding alumni.
  • Attend an event on campus (Core Programs and the Career & Internship Center host many) that is focused on employer connections or exploring options.
  • Reflect on your time here at UW. Consider all of the roles you have held as a graduate student (TA, research assistant, mentor, tutor, lab manager, writer, coder, etc.). Looking at each role, what were the tasks and activities you enjoyed most? Least? See if patterns emerge across roles. For an example of this activity, see pages 8-10 in the Career Guide.
  • Paula Di Rita Wishart’s article on Career Callings also provides some great activities for reflecting on your graduate school experience and next steps.
  • LinkedIn’s Alumni tool shows you where actual UW alumni work and you can sort by location, employer, and field of study to see possible career paths.

Some notes:

  • Looking at job postings when you aren’t sure what you want to do can be overwhelming. Job boards become much more navigable when you have established criteria for what you want in a position. The same goes for large career fairs.
  • Gather multiple data points. That means talking to more than one person, reading about career options on more than one website, and testing out the information you hear.
  • Realize career planning is like all research projects—sometimes things fall into place quickly and sometimes you encounter roadblocks along the way. If you feel stuck or would like someone to brainstorm with, consider booking an appointment with a career counselor and checking in with mentors.

A few more resources for exploring:

Core Programs Team:

Dear UW Grad Student,

Thank you for reaching out! This is a great question, and one we hear frequently from graduate students who are further along in their degree programs and thinking through different career paths. Whether you are thinking about working in industry, non-profits, government, or academia, there are several resources that can help you do intentional career planning (many of which we’ve learned through collaborations with partners at the Career & Internship Center).

First step: do some self-assessment work. Where are you with your skills, strengths, interests, passions? Then, use a planning tool like an Individual Development Plan (link) to start to map out possible goals and steps you can take toward them in the next few months. You can also utilize this helpful career planning guide from the Career & Internship Center that provides several clear, proactive steps you can take towards finding that job you’re passionate about.

To explore and open your possibilities, do LinkedIn searches for professionals with jobs you’re interested in learning more about and set up informational interviews to hear more about their unique career trajectories.

Explore different career options within academia and/or job sectors outside of academia with the amazing resources on the Career Center website.

We totally get that you are 100% focused on your dissertation work and graduation – it’s a lot! And, we know that setting aside 1-2 hours per week (starting right now) to explore, research, draft, attend something that helps you refine your career search will really help you identify career options and opportunities for your next steps. It’s worth it – give it a try!


Core Programs Team

Seven Strategies for Negotiating Salary

At a GO–MAP Power Hour, a group of women of color discussed salary negotiation strategies. Here are seven key takeaways from their conversation:  

1. Confidence is key

Believe in your abilities and strengths. Don’t sell yourself short.

2. Do your research

Use Glassdoor to figure out the salary ranges for the organization and position. If the organization is a non-profit, this information will be available on their 990 forms (tax returns). Don’t be afraid to ask for a salary range at the end of your first interview, so you have a ballpark going in. And research doesn’t need to be web-based – use your friends and networks to gather information about salaries at companies and industries that interest you.

3. It’s about more than salary

Look at your entire benefits package, not just your salary, when considering an offer. Use a list or spreadsheet to track the many facets of the offer. This can help facilitate comparisons between offers and aid in negotiations, especially for academic jobs where an offer will include line items for research, summer salary and the like. Not sure what a package might include? Here are some other important benefits and perks to consider:

  • Medical insurance, including dental. Pay attention to premiums and out-of-pocket caps.
  • Short and long-term disability
  • Life insurance
  • Vacation allotment
  • Maternity leave
  • Sick leave
  • Stipends for medical expenses
  • Transportation benefits

4. When asked how much you’re looking for…

You may want to give a range, which can help with negotiations later on (it can also be considered a risk, others said). If you give a range, the bottom of the range should be the minimum you would accept to feel comfortable at that job. The top of the range should be no more than 20% of the average salary of that position in the city. For example, if the average salary is $45,000, the top of your range should be $54,000.

5. Plan ahead

Don’t just negotiate for how much you need to survive — picture yourself thriving. How much will you need to earn if you want to start investing, or saving toward a major purchase?

6. Negotiate differently

Say the salary at the job you really want is too low, but totally fixed. Consider asking to work fewer hours — say, 32 instead of 40 per week — for the same amount of pay. Then use those eight free hours to start a side-hustle!

7. Continue the conversation

Organize a group of friends and peers to share tips and strategies for negotiating salaries and other resources on professional development.


How Prof. Phillip Levin Works

Phillip Levin, Professor of PracticePhil Levin 2

Department/program: School of Environmental and Forest Sciences
Research focus: Conservation

Phillip Levin is one of only two Professors of Practice at the UW, straddling the academic and professional worlds to maximize impact in both. As the lead scientist at the Nature Conservancy–Seattle, he said in 2016 he hopes to “be a voice of science, to highlight where science can provide answers to our most pressing conservation issues and to act as a scientific adviser.” Levin joined the UW in 2016 after working for 17 years for the National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration–Fisheries, where he received the Department of Commerce Silver Award and NOAA’s Bronze Medal for his work on marine ecosystems. His research into Puget Sound’s sixgill sharks was featured on KCTS-9’s award-winning documentary, Wildlife Detectives: Mystery Sharks of Seattle, in 2016.


Give us a one-word description of how you work:


How do you manage your to-dos?

I’ve tried various apps that sync across devices, but right now my favorite is Google Keep. It’s great for making lists as well as taking short notes.

What are your essential apps, software or tools?

I depend a great deal on my calendar (I use Apple’s calendar to combine my personal and work calendars). I am using Notability on my iPad now as a note taking tool. So far it’s great, and syncs over to my phone and computer. I have also found collaboration tools like Asana to be useful for group projects, but typically only during the start-up phase when there are a lot of moving parts. After that, use by everyone seems to decline.

Where do you most often work?

Right now, because I’m in a new position that requires lots of interaction, I am working quite a bit at our office site. Typically, when I write, I prefer to be in a place where I can experience long stretches without interruption. Often this is at home or on airplanes.

How do you manage your time?

Not very well. I never seem to have enough!

What is your best time-saving shortcut?

I prioritize and spend very little time on low priority items.

What are some of your productivity strategies you’ve honed over your years in academia?

Often I am most productive when I step away from a problem and let my mind wonder. So, when writing or trying to figure out a problem, a long bike ride or walk or gardening will help me. Most of my “writing” is done in my head away from the computer. When I do sit down to actually write, it’s more about organizing my thoughts and trying to express them coherently.


What mundane thing are you really exceptional at?

I’m not sure anything is really mundane. I’m really good at doing nothing, but even then (especially then) the gears in my brain are turning.

What are you currently reading for pleasure?

Tribe: On Homecoming and Belonging by Sebastian Junger

What’s the last thing that made you laugh?

I laugh at everything.

How do you recharge?


What’s your sleep routine like?

Listening to podcasts takes my mind away from the day. When I do so, I typically fall asleep within minutes.


What’s the best advice you’ve ever received?

When my paper or grant proposal is rejected it’s MY fault, not the reviewers. Sure, the reviewer missed the point, or is just plain wrong, but then I need to better express my point. This attitude has always helped me improve my products and reminds me that no matter how right I may think I am, other perspectives are important. – Company registration in Lithuania

Who’s your support system?

My family

What pitfall do you consistently see students falling into?

Failing to consider the larger picture. Why should someone outside your immediate field care about what you do? And letting the perfect be the enemy of the good.

What do your most successful students do?

They persevere in the face of many obstacles. Persistence pays off.

How UW Works was inspired by LifeHacker’s How I Work.

Did you enjoy this series? Check back Wednesdays during the Spring quarter for the latest mid-week motivation! While you wait, you can read more in this series, nominate a student or professor to be featured, or answer the questions yourself! (Students should answer the questions via this form; faculty should use this form. If you prefer to answer the questions over email, drop us a line at

Summer Lovin’ for your resume

Don’t have a summer gig lined up? Or maybe you’ve secured work unrelated to your field, and want to stay mentally sharp during the next few months? Here are 10 tips for professional and career development – a few of which will even get you outdoors! And, as Dylan High, student experience coordinator for Museology reminds us:

“No matter what you do over the summer, stay active and reflective about what you have been involved in over the school year. You never know when inspiration will hit — whether you are at a workshop or up on a mountain. Make space to be creative, and have time for intentional and spontaneous reflection.”

This answer has been provided after consultation with Kelly Hoeft, academic adviser for the School of Social Work, Linda Ruffer, assistant director for the School of Social Work, and Dylan High, student experience coordinator for Museology.

  1. Ship’s not sailed for summer internships
    The Career & Internship Center says it’s not too late to find summer internships. Don’t know where to start? Check out the career fair in the HUB on June 14.
  2. Temp work
    Temp agencies can help you find short-term paid work, and will also help build your contacts at employers across the city.
  3. Plan the next Fyre Festival SXSW
    Event planning and event management skills are well sought-after, especially in the areas of non-profit work. Hone these skills by helping plan a summer festival — either by getting involved with the organization hosting the event or the participating organizations that set up booths or activities.
  4. Head back to summer camp
    Summer camps may have opportunities to volunteer or lead activities outside of working as a camp counselor. If you’re interested in education, it’s an opportunity to hone your lesson planning, facilitation and classroom management skills.
  5. Join professional associations and attend workshops
    This is an opportunity to learn something new and build your network. If a workshop or conference is expensive, consider volunteering for it. If your local association doesn’t have anything planned, talk with the leaders of the chapter to see how you could organize a meet-up. There are also plenty of one-day workshops or short-term courses offered by colleges, universities, and other organizations during the summer.
  6. Set up informational interviews
    Informational interviewing — casually meeting with someone in your field without the agenda of a job offer — is a great way to learn about successful careers, gain insights into an industry and expand your network. Use LinkedIn to connect with someone, then ask them to grab coffee.
  7. Prepare for job hunting
    Visit UW Career Services, where they can help you polish your resume, conduct a mock interview and more. Alumni can visit for free for up to two years.
  8. Contribute to a blog
    Most of your favorite blogs will be happy to have guest contributors. Blogging will keep your writing skills in shape over the summer, get your ideas out in front of your peers, and keep you involved in your professional community.
  9. Read!
    Check out books, news articles and blogs that are not required for class but are related to your field, especially those that build your creative approach to your work.
  10. Stay in touch with your department
    Your department is a great resource to find out about new projects, research opportunities, and resources of interest. Share what you’re reading with your department, and ask them to do the same — this is what makes us all an academic community.